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|Diagnosis and Treatment|
|1||What are the six symptoms or issues that raise suspicion of pulmonary diagnosis?||Answer|
|2||How do you diagnose and treat a reported medical emergency?||Answer|
|3||What causes respiratory symptoms?||Answer|
|1||What is a pulmonologist/pulmonary specialist?||Answer|
|2||What is pulmonology?||Answer|
|3||What are other names for pulmonology?||Answer|
|4||What are the most common conditions of patients who are admitted to hospital having respiratory conditions?||Answer|
|5||What should a primary care physician know to be successful in other human healthcare settings like intensivist, hospitalist, emergency medicine specialist (emergency room), emergency medicine specialist (first responder), physician-scientist, physician-surgeon?||Answer|
|6||What should every physician know about mathematics in human health care?||Answer|
|7||What should a primary care physician, emergency medical specialist, or any other type of physician know about the human respiratory system?||Answer|
|8||What are the most common complaints patient have with underlying pulmonary conditions?||Answer|
|9||What are the four components of the pulmonary examination?||Answer|
|Anatomy & Physiology of the Respiratory System|
|1||What human anatomy should a physician know relevant to the human respiratory system?||Answer|
|2||How many respiratory system organs are there in the human body?||Answer|
|3||Can you name the respiratory system organs in the human body?||Answer|
|1||What Are the Types of Lung Disease?||Answer|
|2||What questions do we need to follow up on?||Answer|
|3||What is respiratory failure?||Answer|
|4||What are other names for respiratory failure?||Answer|
|5||When does a person get combination of acute and chronic respiratory failure?||Answer|
|6||How have computers and Internet enhanced human heath care around the planet earth?||Answer|
|7||What is the difference between types 1 and type 2 respiratory failure?||Answer|
|8||What is acute respiratory failure?||Answer|
|9||What are the individuations of mechanical ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure?||Answer|
|10||What should an internist know about mechanical ventilation?||Answer|
|11||What are the types of mechanical ventilation?||Answer|
|1||What is normal human value of oxygen saturation Spo2 by pulse oximeter?||Answer|
|2||What do manufacturers of pulse oximeters have to do?||Answer|
|3||What is a pulse oximeter?||Answer|
|4||How to use a pulse oximeter?||Answer|
|5||What does a pulse oximeter reading mean?||Answer|
|6||What is the Perfusion Index (PI) in a pulse oximeter?||Answer|
|7||How accurate is a pulse oximeter?||Answer|
|8||Which finger to use in a pulse oximeter?||Answer|
|9||Why keep a pulse oximeter at home?||Answer|
|10||What is pulse oximetry?||Answer|
|11||Why might you need pulse oximetry?||Answer|
|12||What are the risks of pulse oximetry?||Answer|
|13||How do you get ready for pulse oximetry?||Answer|
|14||What happens during pulse oximetry?||Answer|
|15||What happens after pulse oximetry?||Answer|
|Reference ranges for blood tests|
|1||What is the range of normal human biochemistry laboratory values?||Answer|
Type 1 and Type 2 respiratory failure: Prevent, Detect, Intervene
SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT OF MIXED RESPIRATORY FAILURE
|1||What is respiratory failure?||Answer|
|2||What causes respiratory failure?||Answer|
|3||What are the symptoms of respiratory failure?||Answer|
|4||How is respiratory failure diagnosed?||Answer|
|5||What are the treatments for respiratory failure?||Answer|
|6||What are the types of respiratory failure?||Answer|
|7||What is acute respiratory failure?||Answer|
|8||What are the symptoms of acute respiratory failure?||Answer|
|9||What causes acute respiratory failure?||Answer|
|10||Who is at risk for acute respiratory failure?||Answer|
|11||Who is at risk for acute respiratory failure?||Answer|
|12||What can you expect in the long-term?||Answer|
|13||What is chronic respiratory failure?||Answer|
|14||What are the symptoms of chronic respiratory failure?||Answer|
|15||What causes chronic respiratory failure?||Answer|
|16||How is chronic respiratory failure diagnosed?||Answer|
|17||How is chronic respiratory failure treated?||Answer|
|18||What are the potential complications of chronic respiratory failure?||Answer|
|19||How do you calculate respiratory failure?||Answer|
|20||When does respiratory failure need intensive care?||Answer|
|21||How should you care for elders at home?||Answer|
|1||What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?||Answer|
|2||What is the normal respiratory rate for a newborn, infant, toddler, preschooler, school age child, and adolescent?||Answer|
|3||What is the normal pulse rate for a newborn, infant, toddler, preschooler, school age child, and adolescent?||Answer|
|4||What is the lower limit of normal systolic blood pressure in a newborn, infant, toddler, preschooler, school age child, and adolescent?||Answer|
|1||What is the average pH in human blood?||Answer|
|2||What is the pH ranges of human blood?||Answer|
|3||What are examples of various human acid-based disorders?||Answer|
|4||What is respiratory acidosis?||Answer|
Diagnosis and Treatment
What are the six symptoms or issues that raise suspicion of pulmonary diagnosis?
2. Chest pain
5. Sputum production
Fever ; Yes; No
Chills ; Yes; No
Sore Throat / Pain
What human organ system or systems is this symptom relevant to?
Are any environmental harms involved?
Respiratory poisons (Human medicolegal cases)
A woman presents with respiratory insufficiency.
She is neither a smoker nor has consumed any passive smoke.
What are the causes of her chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/respiratory insufficiency?
She was given pesticide intentionally to cause poisoning.
Who initiated and/or got involved in her respiratory poisoning?
What harms can respiratory poisoning cause?
Chronic harms leading to respiratory insufficiency.
What poisons can cause chronic pulmonary damage?
What poisons can cause acute pulmonary damage?
Has anyone given you anything to consume in the form of food, water, drink, medication, or any other material that might have been poison that caused this damage and harms leading to these symptoms and signs?
What are the most common complaints patient have with underlying pulmonary conditions?
Dyspnoea (breathlessness) in certain situations can be of cardia origin.
What are the four components of the pulmonary examination?
What are other names for sore throat?
Upper respiratory infection.
What are the types of sore throat?
Bacterial, particularly strep throat.
Viruses that cause the common cold and the flu also cause most sore throats. Less often, bacterial infections cause sore throats.
Viral illnesses that cause a sore throat include:
?Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
?Croup ? a common childhood illness characterized by a harsh, barking cough
A number of bacterial infections can cause a sore throat. The most common is Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) which causes strep throat.
Other causes of a sore throat include:
?Allergies. Allergies to pet dander, molds, dust and pollen can cause a sore throat. The problem may be complicated by postnasal drip, which can irritate and inflame the throat.
?Dryness. Dry indoor air can make your throat feel rough and scratchy. Breathing through your mouth ? often because of chronic nasal congestion ? also can cause a dry, sore throat.
?Irritants. Outdoor air pollution and indoor pollution such as tobacco smoke or chemicals can cause a chronic sore throat. Chewing tobacco, drinking alcohol and eating spicy foods also can irritate your throat. ?Muscle strain. You can strain muscles in your throat by yelling, talking loudly or talking for long periods without rest.
?Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is a digestive system disorder in which stomach acids back up in the food pipe (esophagus).
Other signs or symptoms may include heartburn, hoarseness, regurgitation of stomach contents and the sensation of a lump in your throat.
Also, someone who is HIV-positive might have a chronic or recurring sore throat due to a fungal infection called oral thrush or due to a viral infection called cytomegalovirus (CMV), which can be serious in people with compromised immune systems.
?Tumors. Cancerous tumors of the throat, tongue or voice box (larynx) can cause a sore throat. Other signs or symptoms may include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, noisy breathing, a lump in the neck, and blood in saliva or phlegm.
Rarely, an infected area of tissue (abscess) in the throat or swelling of the small cartilage "lid" that covers the windpipe (epiglottitis) can cause a sore throat. Both can block the airway, creating a medical emergency.
Although anyone can get a sore throat, some factors make you more susceptible, including:
?Age. Children and teens are most likely to develop sore throats. Children ages 3 to 15 are also more likely to have strep throat, the most common bacterial infection associated with a sore throat.
?Exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking and secondhand smoke can irritate the throat. The use of tobacco products also increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat and voice box.
?Allergies. Seasonal allergies or ongoing allergic reactions to dust, molds or pet dander make developing a sore throat more likely. ?Exposure to chemical irritants. Particles in the air from burning fossil fuels and common household chemicals can cause throat irritation.
?Chronic or frequent sinus infections. Drainage from your nose can irritate your throat or spread infection.
?Close quarters. Viral and bacterial infections spread easily anywhere people gather, whether in child care centers, classrooms, offices or airplanes.
?Weakened immunity. You're more susceptible to infections in general if your resistance is low. Common causes of lowered immunity include HIV, diabetes, treatment with steroids or chemotherapy drugs, stress, fatigue, and poor diet.
The best way to prevent sore throats is to avoid the germs that cause them and practice good hygiene. Follow these tips and teach your child to do the same:
?Wash your hands thoroughly and frequently, especially after using the toilet, before eating, and after sneezing or coughing.
?Avoid sharing food, drinking glasses or utensils.
?Cough or sneeze into a tissue and throw it away. When necessary, sneeze into your elbow.
?Use alcohol-based hand sanitizers as an alternative to washing hands when soap and water aren't available.
?Avoid touching public phones or drinking fountains with your mouth. ?Regularly clean telephones, TV remotes and computer keyboards with sanitizing cleanser. When you travel, clean phones and remotes in your hotel room.
?Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
What type of sore throat is resistant to treatment?
What usually is the first line of treatment for sore throat, particularly strep throat?
This is for individual older than 18 years.
4. Choloroseptic spray.
5. Alka-Seltzer Plus Night Severe Cold + Flu
In nonbacterial or non-strep sore throat, antibiotics are not required.
Other treatments mentioned above are required.
What should you do if treatment is not effective within 4-6 days?
Change the treatment.
What should happen next?
Azithromycin 250mg Oral tabs 2 tabs by mouth on the first day- then 1 tab once a day for 4 days.
Ibuprofen 600 mg tabs 1 by mouth every 6 hours as needed.
Alka-Seltzer Plus Night Severe Cold + Flu
American states? pharmacies should get strepcils throat spray.
This is manufactured in New Zealand.
Up to April 10, 2015, American pharmacies did not have strepcils throat spray.
Why have other sore throat sprays been less effective up to April 10, 2015?
Existing throat sprays other than strepcils have no antibacterial content. This is the only local anesthetic effect that relieves pain temporarily.
A combination of anesthetic and antibacterial sore throat spray should be available.
What is the flu?
The flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses.
What are symptoms of the flu?
Body or muscle aches
Is it a cold or the flu?
Antigenic shift and antigenic drift are there.
Do not count on vaccinations.
What did you understand?
What is the treatment for the flu?
Antihistamines are the best treatments for the flu as of October 12, 2016, especially a combination formula.
A combination of nighttime formula has 325 mg of acetaminophen (pain reliever/fever reducer), 2 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate (antihistamine), 10 mg of dextromethorphan HBr (cough suppressant), and 5 mg of phenylephrine HCI (nasal decongestant) per caplet. This combination has proven to be effective for individuals 18 years old or older.
Take these caplets as required, but not more than 3 per day.
What human anatomy should a physician know relevant to the human respiratory system?
Here is a diagrammatic presentation.
Biology of human respiration.
What should you know about the biology of human respiration?
In some regions, biology of human respiration is taught under the subjects of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of respiration. Human Anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry are branches of biology. There are many branches of biology.
What are the vital signs of human organ systems functions?|
Consciousness / Level of consciousness
What is the normal respiratory rate for a newborn, infant, toddler, preschooler, school age child, and adolescent?
What is the normal pulse rate for a newborn, infant, toddler, preschooler, school age child, and adolescent?
What is the lower limit of normal systolic blood pressure in a newborn, infant, toddler, preschooler, school age child, and adolescent?
Pediatric Vital Sign Normal Ranges