The reference book of Ophthalmology

Q: How many ophthalmic medical conditions are there?
A: There are more than 350 ophthalmic medical disorders.
Here are further guidelines.

  1. Eye Emergencies

  2. Common, Non-Emergency Eye Problems

    Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology of the Human Eye
    1. Anterior chamber

    2. Bulba sheath

    3. Canal of Schlemm

    4. Central retinal artery

    5. Central retinal vein

    6. Choroid

    7. Ciliary muscle

    8. Ciliary process

    9. Ciliary zonules

    10. Conjunctiva

    11. Cornea

    12. Dura mater

    13. Fovea centralis

    14. Inferior oblique muscle

    15. Inferior rectus muscle

    16. Iris

    17. Lenticular cortex

    18. Lenticular nucleus

    19. Macula lutea

    20. Medial rectus muscle

    21. Optic disc

    22. Optic nerve

    23. Ora serrata

    24. Posterior compartment

    25. Pupil

    26. Retina

    27. Retinal arteries / veins

    28. Sclera

    29. Superior rectus muscle

    30. Vorticose vein

    Eye Emergencies
    Eye Emergencies: Types, Symptoms, and Prevention
    What is considered a true eye emergency?
    What is an eye emergency?
    What are ophthalmological medical emergencies?
    How should you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a person reported as an ophthalmological medical emergency?
    What is an ophthalmologist?
    How is an ophthalmologist different from an optometrist and an optician?
    What is a subspecialist?
    When should I see an ophthalmologist?
    What happens during an eye examination?
    How do you diagnose and treat ophthalmic medical conditions in children?

    What is considered a true eye emergency?

    Eye Emergency Symptoms

    Sudden blindness / Sudden vision loss
    Sudden loss of vision in the left eye
    Sudden loss of vision in the right eye
    Trauma to the Eye
    Eye Trauma / Penetrating / Perforating Injury
    Burning or stinging
    Pupils that are not the same size
    One eye is not moving like the other
    One eye is sticking out or bulging
    Eye pain
    Decreased vision
    Double vision
    Redness and irritation
    Light sensitivity
    Bruising around the eye
    Bleeding from the eye
    Blood in the white part of the eye
    Discharge from the eye
    Severe itching
    New or severe headaches


    •Black spots or flashes of light.
    •Curtain-like disappearance of vision.
    •Eye injury or pain.
    •Seeing halos or rainbows around light.
    •Loss of peripheral (side) vision.
    •Sudden hazy or blurred vision.
    •Sudden vision loss in one eye.
    •Red, crusty or swollen eyelids.

    Other Eye Symptoms That May Arise

    The following symptoms may not be emergencies but still require examination from your eye doctor:
    •Blurred or double vision
    •Excessive tearing or watering of your eyes
    •Itchy, burning, or dry eyes
    •Difficulty seeing in dark environments
    •Seeing spots or ghost-like images
    •Light sensitivity
    •Eye strain and/or frequent mild headaches


    •Trouble seeing
    •Cuts to the eyelid
    •One eye not moving as well
    •One eye sticks out
    •Blood in the clear part of the eye
    •Unusual pupil size or shape
    •Something embedded in the eye
    •Something under the eyelid that cannot be easily removed

    What is an eye emergency?
    An eye emergency occurs any time you have a foreign object or chemicals in your eye, or when an injury or burn affects your eye area.

    Remember, you should seek medical attention if you ever experience swelling, redness, or pain in your eyes. Without proper treatment, eye damage can lead to partial loss of vision or even permanent blindness.

    What not to do if you have an eye injury

    Serious complications can occur from an eye injury. You shouldn’t attempt to treat yourself. Although you may be tempted, be sure not to:
    rub or apply pressure to your eye
    try to remove foreign objects that are stuck in any part of your eye
    use tweezers or any other tools in your eye (cotton swabs can be used, but only on the eyelid)
    put medications or ointments in your eye

    If you wear contact lenses, don’t take them out if you think you’ve suffered an eye injury. Attempting to remove your contacts can make your injury worse.

    The only exceptions to this rule are in situations where you have a chemical injury and your lenses didn’t flush out with water, or where you cannot receive immediate medical help.

    The best thing you can do in an eye emergency is to get to your doctor as soon as possible.

    Chemical injuries to the eye

    Chemical burns result when cleaning products, garden chemicals, or industrial chemicals get into your eyes. You can also suffer burns in your eye from aerosols and fumes.

    If you get acid in your eye, early treatment generally results in a good prognosis. However, alkaline products like drain cleaners, sodium hydroxide, lye, or lime can permanently damage your cornea.

    If you get chemicals in your eye, you should take the following steps: Wash hands with soap and water to remove any chemicals that may have gotten on your hands.
    Turn your head so the injured eye is down and to the side.
    Hold your eyelid open and flush with clean cool tap water for 15 minutes. This can also be done in the shower.
    If you’re wearing contact lenses and they’re still in your eye after flushing, try to remove them.
    Get to an emergency room or urgent care center as quickly as possible.


    1. Eye Trauma
    2. Ischemic optic neuropathy: rule out giant-cell arteritis (GCA)
    3. Central retina artery occlusion: rule out GCA and causes of emboli/thrombus
    4. Mac-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
    5. Acute third nerve palsy: rule out intracranial aneurysm
    6. Corneal microbial keratitis: culture and treat with empiric antibiotics and follow closely
    7. Open globe: rule out intraocular foreign body
    8. Acute angle closure glaucoma
    9. Endophthalmitis
    10. Alkali injury: requires urgent and copious irrigation
    11. Orbital cellulitis

    Term Definition
    Abrasion Defect of the corneal epithelium. Stains with fluorescein. Usually heals within 24 – 48 hours
    Contusion Result of blunt injury, either at site of impact or distant to it
    Closed injury The wall of the globe is intact but structures inside the eye are damaged
    Rupture Jagged open injury due to blunt injury, often away from the site of injury at the weakest points of the globe: concentric to the limbus, just behind the insertion of the extraocular muscles or at the equator
    Open injury A full thickness break in the wall of the eye; can follow either sharp or severe blunt injury
    Lamellar laceration Partial thickness wound caused by a sharp object
    Laceration Full thickness penetration
    Penetration Entry wound only
    Perforation ‘Through and through’ injury; an injury that goes right through the eye, causing both entry and exit wounds
    Emergency Care

    If you have a problem that you feel is an emergency or life threatening, call 911 immediately or go to the nearest emergency room.

    What are ophthalmological medical emergencies?
    How should you do a quick assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a person reported as an ophthalmological medical emergency?

    * Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma
    * Acute Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy
    * Acute Orbital Compartment Syndrome
    * Acute Retinal Necrosis
    * Alacrima
    * Angle Recession Glaucoma
    * Aphakic and Pseudophakic Glaucoma
    * Best Disease
    * Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
    * Chalazion in Emergency Medicine
    * Complications and Management of Glaucoma Filtering
    * Conductive Keratoplasty Hyperopia and Presbyopia
    * Congenital Anomalies of the Nasolacrimal Duct
    * Corneal Laceration
    * Corneal Ulceration and Ulcerative Keratitis in Emergency Medicine
    * Dacryoadenitis
    * Dacryocystitis
    * Drug-Induced Glaucoma
    * Dry Eye Syndrome
    * Eales Disease
    * Emergency Care of Corneal Abrasion
    * Emergent Treatment of Acute Conjunctivitis
    * Endophthalmitis
    * Exudative Retinal Detachment
    * Fuchs Heterochromic Uveitis
    * Glaucoma, Angle Closure, Acute
    * Glaucoma, Angle Closure, Chronic
    * Glaucoma, Suspect, Adult
    * Globe Rupture
    * Hordeolum and Stye in Emergency Medicine
    * Hyphema Glaucoma
    * Intermediate Uveitis
    * Intraocular Foreign Body
    * Iris Prolapse
    * Iritis and Uveitis
    * Juvenile Glaucoma
    * Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Uveitis
    * Lacrimal Gland Tumors
    * LASIK Hyperopia
    * Lattice Degeneration
    * Lens-Particle Glaucoma
    * Low-Tension Glaucoma
    * Macular Hole
    * Nonpseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema
    * Obstruction Nasolacrimal Duct
    * Ocular Burns
    * Ocular Hypotony
    * Periorbital Infections
    * Phacolytic Glaucoma
    * Phacomorphic Glaucoma
    * Phakic IOL Hyperopia
    * Pigmentary Glaucoma
    * Plateau Iris Glaucoma
    * Posner-Schlossman Syndrome
    * Postoperative Corneal Edema
    * Postoperative Endophthalmitis
    * Primary Congenital Glaucoma
    * Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
    * Proliferative Retinal Detachment
    * Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma
    * Retinal Artery Occlusion
    * Retinal Detachment
    * Retinal Vein Occlusion
    * Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment
    * Secondary Congenital Glaucoma
    * Sudden Visual Loss
    * Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome
    * Tractional Retinal Detachment
    * Ultraviolet Keratitis
    * Unilateral Glaucoma
    * Uveitic Glaucoma
    * Uveitis, Anterior, Childhood
    * Uveitis, Anterior, Granulomatous
    * Uveitis, Anterior, Nongranulomatous
    * Vitreous Hemorrhage in Emergency Medicine
    Eye Trauma

    Managing Serious Cases of Ocular Trauma

    Assessing and managing eye injuries

    Definitions of terms used to describe eye injuries

    Eye trauma refers to damage caused by a direct blow to the eye. The trauma may affect not only the eye, but the surrounding area, including adjacent tissue and bone structure.

    There are many different forms of trauma, varying in severity from minor injury to medical emergencies. Even in cases where trauma seems minor, every eye injury should be given medical attention.

    What Causes Eye Trauma?

    When the eye is hit with blunt force, it suddenly compresses and retracts. This can cause blood to collect underneath the hit area, which leads to many of the common symptoms of eye trauma.

    Symptoms of Eye Trauma

    Symptoms of eye trauma may include:
    •Trouble seeing
    •Cuts to the eyelid
    •One eye not moving as well
    •One eye sticks out
    •Blood in the clear part of the eye
    •Unusual pupil size or shape
    •Something embedded in the eye
    •Something under the eyelid that cannot be easily removed

    Treatments for Eye Trauma

    Every eye injury should be given medical attention; do not touch, rub or try to remove any object in the eye. If the eye has been cut or there is an object in the eye, rest a protective shield – such as a paper cup – on the bone around your eye. Make sure there is no pressure on the eye itself. Seek immediate, professional medical attention.

    In minor cases of trauma, such as a black eye from a sports injury, applying cold to the affected area can help bring swelling down, and allow the affected area to heal faster. However, even in cases where trauma seems minor, every eye injury should be given medical attention.

    The best way to avoid eye trauma is to prevent it by using protective eyewear while doing things that may put them at risk. Activities include home repair, yard work, cleaning, cooking, and playing sports. In most cases of injury, people report not properly protecting their eyes – which shows that proper precautions may prevent an eye injury.

    Most common eye conditions
    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
    Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)
    Corneal Disease
    Diabetic Retinopathy
    Dry Eye
    Eye Disease Simulations
    Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
    Low Vision
    Myopia (Nearsightedness)
    Refractive Errors
    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
    Retinal Detachment

    Eye Care
    Common, Non-Emergency Eye Problems
    Are you having any problems with your vision?
    How long have you had these problems?
    When do these problems occur?
    When was your last eye examination?
    Do you have any family history of eye problems?
    How is your general health?
    What medications are you taking?
    Do you have any allergies?
    Do you wear glasses/contacts now?
    Have your glasses/contacts become stronger over the years?
    Do you work with a computer?
    Do your eyes ever tire (burn, itch) when reading?
    Do you ever see double images or halos around images?
    Do you suffer from eye strain and/or tension headaches?
    Here are further guidelines.

    What is an ophthalmologist?
    How is an ophthalmologist different from an optometrist and an optician?
    What is a subspecialist?
    When should I see an ophthalmologist?
    What happens during an eye examination?
    What treatments are available for my eyes?
    Here are further guidelines.
    Q: What should you know and be able to do as an ophthalmologist?

    What is an ophthalmologist?
    You are first a physician, than a specialist or super specialist.
    Ophthalmology is the study of medical conditions relating to the eye. Ophthalmologists are doctors who specialize in the medical and surgical treatment of this organ. A general practice doctor may refer someone to an ophthalmologist if they show symptoms of cataracts, eye infections, optic nerve problems, or other eye conditions.

    An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating eye-related conditions.

    Some ophthalmologists undergo a year or two of fellowship training specializing in one of the many subspecialties of ophthalmology, such as:
    the cornea
    the retina
    refractive surgery
    plastic and reconstructive surgery
    ocular oncology
    Subspecialist ophthalmologists have usually completed training that allows them to work on eye conditions that are complex, involve a specific part of the eye, or affect certain groups of people. They also train more extensively than regular ophthalmologists to perform extremely intricate surgeries on delicate parts of the eye.

    What conditions do they treat?
    Ophthalmologists are responsible for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of almost all eye conditions and visual issues.

    However, subspecialist ophthalmologists tend to treat and monitor certain conditions, such as:

    retinal conditions, such as macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy
    corneal conditions
    cases involving children or childhood eye conditions
    cases with a neurological cause or component, such as optic nerve problems, abnormal eye movements, double vision, and some kinds of vision loss
    cases involving complex surgical procedures, such as reconstructive surgery or advanced vision repair
    Aside from caring for the eyes and vision, an ophthalmologist’s medical training may also equip them to notice symptoms of conditions that do not directly relate to the eye. In such cases, they can refer people for the appropriate treatment.

    Many ophthalmologists also participate in some form of scientific research focusing on the causes of eye and vision conditions, as well as potential cures.

    What procedures do they do?
    Most ophthalmologists are trained and certified to perform a wide range of medical and surgical procedures. The procedures that an ophthalmologist regularly carries out depend on several factors, such as the type of practice and specialty in which they work.

    Some of the most common everyday procedures that an ophthalmologist will perform include diagnosing and monitoring mild eye and vision conditions. They will also spend time prescribing and fitting glasses and contact lenses to correct vision problems.

    Subspecialist ophthalmologists tend to perform a smaller range of procedures on a day-to-day basis, focusing instead on the treatment of one condition or a few related conditions.

    Procedures that subspecialists commonly perform include:

    • diagnosis and monitoring of moderate-to-severe eye conditions
    • cataract surgery
    • glaucoma surgery
    • refractive surgery to correct vision
    • cancer treatment
    • reconstructive surgery to repair trauma or birth abnormalities, such as crossed eyes
    • chronic or severe tear duct infections or blockages
    • neoplasm (tumor, cyst, or foreign object) removal
    • monitoring or consulting on cases relating to other conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy or immune conditions
    • injections around the eyes and face to alter facial structure function and appearance
    • repairing torn or detached retinas
    • corneal transplants
    When to see an ophthalmologist

    Most people see an ophthalmologist because they are experiencing chronic or severe vision symptoms or signs of eye conditions, such as:

    • bulging eyes
    • reduced, distorted, blocked, or double vision
    • excessive tearing
    • eyelid abnormalities or problems
    • seeing colored circles or halos around lights
    • misaligned eyes
    • black specks or strings called floaters in the field of view
    • seeing flashes of light
    • unexplained eye redness
    • loss of peripheral vision

    A person may need emergency care from an ophthalmologist if their symptoms include:

    • sudden vision loss or changes
    • sudden or severe eye pain
    • eye injury

    A person may also receive a referral to an ophthalmologist if they have conditions or factors that can increase the risk of eye conditions, such as:

    • high blood pressure
    • diabetes
    • a family history of eye conditions
    • thyroid conditions, for example, Graves’ disease

    A family doctor, pediatrician, emergency room doctor, or optometrist usually refers a person to an ophthalmologist.

    The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommend that people have a full medical eye exam by the age of 40 years so that an ophthalmologist can create a baseline profile of their eye health.

    Having an eye health baseline is important because it makes it easier for doctors to spot or track eye or vision changes, which are often subtle and difficult to detect. Even healthy people can suddenly experience severe eye conditions.

    Vision tests and eye exams are procedures an optometrist may perform.

    Unlike ophthalmologists, optometrists and opticians are not medical doctors. However, members of all three distinct professions can, and frequently do, work in the same office or practice.

    Optometrists are healthcare professionals who provide primary vision care. Optometrists hold a Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree, which requires the completion of 3–4 years of college and then 4 years of optometry school.

    While the procedures that they perform vary between states and individual practices or clinics, most optometrists:

    • perform vision tests and eye exams
    • prescribe and dispense corrective lenses
    • help manage and monitor vision changes
    • detect signs of conditions that need subspecialist care, such as glaucoma and cataracts
    • prescribe medications to help manage certain conditions

    Opticians are a type of healthcare technician. They are specially trained to help design, confirm, select, or fit corrective vision devices, including contact lenses and eyeglass lenses and frames. Opticians cannot diagnose or treat conditions and must follow the prescription and guidance of optometrists and ophthalmologists.

    The other eye healthcare professionals who frequently work with ophthalmologists and optometrists include:

    • ophthalmic medical assistants: these technicians perform many different tests and assist ophthalmologists
    • ophthalmic technicians: these more highly trained or experienced medical assistants help ophthalmologists perform more complex tests and minor office surgeries
    • ophthalmic photographer: these professionals use special cameras and photography methods to create pictures of the eyes that help document eye conditions
    • ophthalmic registered nurse: these healthcare clinicians have specialized nursing training and can help ophthalmologists perform technical tasks, such as assisting with surgeries or injecting medications
    Pediatric Ophthalmology

    Q: How do you diagnose and treat ophthalmic medical conditions in children?

    Eye Testing for Newborn
      How do you do an eye exam of a newborn?
      Who should do an eye exam of a newborn?
      What should you look for in an eye exam of a newborn?
    Eye Testing for Infants
      Q: How do you do an eye exam for a six month-old?
    Eye Testing for Preschool Children
      Q: Does your child seem to see well?
      Q: Does your child hold objects close to his or her face when trying to focus?
      Q: Do your child's eyes appear straight or do they seem to cross or drift or seem lazy?
      Q: Do your child's eyes appear unusual?
      Q: Do your child's eyelids droop or does 1 eyelid tend to close?
      Q: Have your child's eye(s) ever been injured?
    Ophthalmology History
    What Does 20/20 Vision Mean?
    Glossary of Ophthalmology Terms
    Ophthalmology Sections
    Snellen Eye Test
    Digital Retinal Photography
    Corneal Topography
    Computerized Automated Refractor
      What is a computerized automated refractor?
      Who are the manufacturers of automated refractors?
      What are the uses of a computerized automated refractor?
      How is a computerized automated refractor test administered?
      What are common types of glasses/spectacles?
    Automated Non-contact Tonometer
    Automated Visual Field Perimetry
    Marco TRS Automated Refraction System
    Computerized Patient Records System
    Ophthalmic instrument and equipment manufacturers
      What are various ophthalmic instruments and equipment?
      Who are the quality ophthalmic instrument and equipment manufacturers?
      What materials do you need to manufacture ophthalmic instruments and equipments?
      How are ophthalmic instruments and equipments manufactured?
    Refractive errors
      Q: What is normal vision?
      Q: What does it mean when someone has 20/20 vision?
      Q: What are refractive errors?
      Q: What causes refractive errors?
      Q: What are the symptoms?
      Q: What is the difference between reading glasses and distance glasses?
      Q: How often and how long should plus lenses be used?
      Q: What if problems such as tired eyes are experienced when using plus lenses?
      Q: Why do many people need stronger minus glasses year after year?
      Q: Are plus lenses harmful in any way?
      Q: How far should the eyes be from the book or computer or other close object when using the reading glasses?

      Fashionable Frames
      Quality Lenses

      Q: What are Polarised lenses?
      Q: What are Transition lenses?
      Q: What are Polycarbonate lenses?
    Eye Injuries
      Q: What are the symptoms of eye injuries?
      Q: How are eye injuries diagnosed?
      Q: How are eye injuries treated?
    Low Vision
    Eye Safety
    Retinal Detachment
      Eye Cataract is quite common especially in the old age. What are the reasons responsible for this condition?
      What is the best treatment available for treating cataract?
    Diabetic retinopathy
      How does Diabetes affect the eyes and what is the treatment?
    Health care and desktop computer monitor
    Laser vision correction surgery
    Retina and vitreous consultation including evaluation and treatment of age related macular degeneration
    Cornea transplantation
    Management and treatment of eyelid and orbital cancers
    Management and treatment of thyroid eye disease
    Cosmetic eyelid surgery
    Reconstructive eyelid and orbital surgery
    Glaucoma evaluation and treatment
    Evaluation of all pediatric eye conditions
    Evaluation of genetic conditions which affect the eye or visual system
    Eye Health Organizations
    People often complain of red eyes, frequent watering, and eye strain. What precautions should people take to avoid it?
    Computer vision syndrome is getting common these days with the increased use of computers.
    What is the solution?
    What are the precautions you would advise for general eye care?

    What is the difference between an ophthalmologist, an optometrist and an optician?
    What are the best things about your specialty?
    What are the worst things about your specialty?
    Why did you choose your specialty?
    What types of clinical cases do you commonly see?
    Briefly describe a typical day.
    What are the varieties of lifestyles within your field?
    How do you see your discipline changing over the next decade?
    On November 14, 2010, an 18-year-old boy from Baramullah was diagnosed with trauma and retinal detachment at SKIMS. Is that correct?
    Treatment outside the state was advised.
    Why does a retinal detachment need treatment outside the state?
    How many ophthalmologists are there in the state?
    Why didn't the state department of health impart training to existing medical doctors or ophthalmologists to treat such cases within the state?
    Eye Disability
      When do you declare that a person has eye disability?
    There is no exact verified number of blind people in the state.
    There is no exact verified number of people with eye disabilities in the state.
    A Community Ophthalmology Unit is opened at a primary health center.
    How did they determine that a Community Ophthalmology Unit at a primary health center at specific location is required?
    Who has the duty to maintain an exact verified number of blind people and those with eye disabilities in the state?
    Who has the duty to research and treat these cases?

    How many people in your state are completely blind?
    What is the cause of blindness?
    What is their profile?
    Where is the exact lesion?
    Is their a hope for them to regain their vision?
    What have you done?
    How can I/we help?

    Are you as an ophthalmologist facing a most difficult case?
    If yes, feel free to communicate and consult.


    Gallery of Eye Examination Equipment.
    1. Exam Room
    Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope
    Manual Keratometer
    Retinal Camera
    Retinoscope and Direct Ophthalmoscope
    Slit Lamp
    Ophthalmology Operating Microscopes | Cataract Surgery Equipment

    Exam Room

    An examination room at an eye doctor's office usually consists of an exam chair, a phoropter, an eye chart, a slit lamp and a stool for the eye care practitioner.

    An autorefractor is a machine used to measure a person's refractive error and prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses. This is achieved by measuring how light is changed as it enters a person's eye.

    The automated refraction technique is quick, simple and painless. The patient takes a seat and places their chin on a rest. One eye at a time, they look into the machine at a picture inside. The picture moves in and out of focus as the machine takes readings to determine when the image is on the retina.

    Several readings are taken which the machine averages to form a prescription. No feedback is required from the patient during this process.
    Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope

    An ophthalmoscope is an instrument used for examining the interior structures of the eye, especially the retina, consisting of a mirror that reflects light into the eye and a central hole through which the eye is examined.

    A binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO) is worn on an eye doctor's head in order to have the use of both hands to examine the eyes.

    A lensometer is an instrument used to measure the power of an existing lens. An optician uses a lensometer to determine the prescription of a patient's eyeglasses.
    Manual Keratometer

    A manual keratometer is used to determine how flat or steep the cornea is. It is often used to measure and diagnose conditions such as astigmatism, keratoconus, corneal scarring and corneal distortion. A keratometer is commonly used to fit contact lenses as well.

    A phoropter (or phoroptor) is an instrument used during an eye examination to measure refractive error and determine eyeglass prescriptions. Typically, the patient sits behind the phoropter and looks through it at an eye chart.

    The optometrist then changes lenses and other settings, while asking the patient for feedback on which settings give the best vision.
    Retinal Camera

    A retinal camera is used to photograph the back of the eye, including the retina. It is used to document eye diseases. The camera produces a bright flash when a picture is taken.
    Retinoscope and Direct Ophthalmoscope

    A retinoscope is used to shine light into a patient's eye for an eye doctor to observe the reflection off the retina. The light is moved back and forth across the pupil

    A retinoscope is especially useful in prescribing corrective lenses for patients who are unable to give oral feedback to the eye doctor. It is also useful for determining how well the eyes work together (accommodate) to see clearly.

    A direct ophthalmoscope is a hand-held instrument used for examining the interior structures of the eye, especially the retina. It consists of a mirror that reflects light into the eye and a central hole through which the eye is examined.
    Slit Lamp

    A slit lamp is a microscope with a light attached that allows the doctor to closely examine the eye. This instrument is used to view the structures of the eye such as the cornea, iris, and lens.

    With special lenses, it is possible to examine the back of the eye as well. A slit lamp allows the practitioner to have an amazing view of the inside of your eyes.


    A tonometer is used to measure the pressure of the eye. The test is used to help detect glaucoma. Numbing drops are used for the type of tonometer that actually touches the eye. Some doctors use the air-puff tonometer in which no numbing drops are needed.

    A tonometer measures the production of aqueous humor, the liquid found inside the eye, and the rate at which it drains into the tissue surrounding the cornea.
    Ophthalmology Operating Microscopes | Cataract Surgery Equipment

    Carl Zeiss is the first to develop ophthalmology operating microscopes with Stereo Coaxial Illumination (SCI™). With this technology, you and your patients will benefit from:

    Unique detail recognition
    High-contrast brilliance and stability of the red reflex
    Even in patients with strongly pigmented, decentered and ametropic eyes, this cataract surgery equipment technology enables you to easily see all the eye’s details.

    Eye Diseases and Disorders
    Q: How many ophthalmic medical conditions are there?
    A: There are more than 350 ophthalmic medical disorders.

    What are various examples?
    1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

      Ophthalmology Sections
      Anterior Chamber

    2. Hyphema

    3. Postoperative Flat Anterior Chamber

    4. Synechia, Peripheral Anterior

    5. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome

    6. Angioid Streaks

    7. Choroidal Detachment

    8. Choroidal Rupture

    9. Melanoma, Choroidal

    10. Multifocal Choroidopathy Syndromes

    11. Neovascularization, Choroidal

    12. Cicatricial Pemphigoid

    13. Conjunctivitis, Allergic

    14. Conjunctivitis, Bacterial

    15. Conjunctivitis, Giant Papillary

    16. Conjunctivitis, Neonatal

    17. Conjunctivitis, Viral

    18. Filtering Bleb Complications

    19. Keratoconjunctivitis, Epidemic

    20. Melanoma, Conjunctival

    21. Papilloma, Conjunctival

    22. Pharyngoconjunctival Fever

    23. Pterygium

    24. Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Conjunctival

    25. Subconjunctival Hemorrhage
      Connective Tissue Disorders

    26. Ankylosing Spondylitis

    27. Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    28. Reactive Arthritis

    29. Sjogren Syndrome

    30. Central Sterile Corneal Ulceration

    31. Congenital Clouding of the Cornea

    32. Contact Lens Complications

    33. Corneal Abrasion

    34. Corneal Edema, Postoperative

    35. Corneal Erosion, Recurrent

    36. Corneal Foreign Body

    37. Corneal Graft Rejection

    38. Corneal Melt, Postoperative

    39. Corneal Mucous Plaques

    40. Dermoid, Limbal

    41. Descemet Membrane Folds

    42. Dystrophy, Crystalline

    43. Dystrophy, Fuchs Endothelial

    44. Dystrophy, Granular

    45. Dystrophy, Lattice

    46. Dystrophy, Macular

    47. Dystrophy, Map-dot-fingerprint

    48. Herpes Simplex

    49. Keratitis, Bacterial

    50. Keratitis, Fungal

    51. Keratitis, Herpes Simplex

    52. Keratitis, Interstitial

    53. Keratoconjunctivitis, Atopic

    54. Keratoconjunctivitis, Sicca

    55. Keratoconjunctivitis, Superior Limbic

    56. Keratoconus

    57. Keratopathy, Band

    58. Keratopathy, Neurotrophic

    59. Keratopathy, Pseudophakic Bullous

    60. Laceration, Corneoscleral

    61. Megalocornea

    62. Neovascularization, Corneal, CL-related

    63. Pellucid Marginal Degeneration

    64. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    65. Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy

    66. Thygeson Superficial Punctate Keratitis

    67. Ulcer, Corneal
      Computer Vision Syndrome

    68. Computer Vision Syndrome

      Dermatologic Disorders

    69. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

    70. Dermatitis, Atopic

    71. Dermatitis, Contact

    72. Ichthyosis

    73. Kaposi Sarcoma

    74. Kawasaki Disease

    75. Ocular Rosacea

    76. Psoriasis

    77. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
      Endocrine Disorders

    78. Pituitary Apoplexy
      Extraocular Muscles

    79. Abducens Nerve Palsy

    80. Brown Syndrome

    81. Convergence Insufficiency

    82. Duane Syndrome

    83. Esotropia and Exotropia, A-patterns

    84. Esotropia and Exotropia, V-patterns

    85. Esotropia, Accommodative

    86. Esotropia, Acquired

    87. Esotropia, Infantile

    88. Esotropia, Pseudo

    89. Esotropia, with High AC/A Ratio

    90. Exotropia, Acquired

    91. Exotropia, Congenital

    92. Exotropia, Pseudo

    93. Globe Retraction

    94. Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome

    95. Monofixation Syndrome

    96. Nystagmus, Acquired

    97. Nystagmus, Congenital

    98. Oculomotor Nerve Palsy

    99. Trochlear Nerve Palsy
      Genetic Disorders

    100. Albinism

    101. Aniridia in the Newborn

    102. Down Syndrome

    103. Familial Dysautonomia

    104. HLA-B27 Syndromes

    105. Peters Anomaly

    106. Prenatal Diagnosis for Congenital Malformations and Genetic Disorders

    107. Anophthalmos

    108. Endophthalmitis, Bacterial

    109. Endophthalmitis, Postoperative
      Hematologic and Cardiovascular Disorders

    110. Giant Cell Arteritis

    111. Hypertension

    112. Leukemias

    113. Ocular Ischemic Syndrome

    114. Sickle Cell Disease
      Infectious Disease

    115. Actinomycosis

    116. Botulism

    117. Chlamydia

    118. Coccidioidomycosis

    119. Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic

    120. Demodicosis

    121. Diphtheria

    122. Endophthalmitis, Fungal

    123. Escherichia Coli

    124. Gonococcus

    125. Herpes Zoster

    126. Lyme Disease

    127. Molluscum Contagiosum

    128. Mucormycosis

    129. Ocular Cysticerceosis

    130. Ocular Manifestations of Syphilis

    131. Onchocerciasis

    132. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    133. Toxoplasmosis

    134. Trachoma

    135. Tuberculosis

    136. Typhoid Fever
      Intraocular Pressure

    137. Glaucoma and Penetrating Keratoplasty

    138. Glaucoma, Angle Closure, Acute

    139. Glaucoma, Angle Closure, Chronic

    140. Glaucoma, Angle Recession

    141. Glaucoma, Aphakic And Pseudophakic

    142. Glaucoma, Complications and Management of Glaucoma Filtering

    143. Glaucoma, Drainage Devices

    144. Glaucoma, Drug-Induced

    145. Glaucoma, Hyphema

    146. Glaucoma, Intraocular Tumors

    147. Glaucoma, Juvenile

    148. Glaucoma, Lens-Particle

    149. Glaucoma, Low Tension

    150. Glaucoma, Malignant

    151. Glaucoma, Neovascular

    152. Glaucoma, Phacolytic

    153. Glaucoma, Phacomorphic

    154. Glaucoma, Pigmentary

    155. Glaucoma, Plateau Iris

    156. Glaucoma, Primary Congenital

    157. Glaucoma, Primary Open Angle

    158. Glaucoma, Pseudoexfoliation

    159. Glaucoma, Secondary Congenital

    160. Glaucoma, Suspect, Adult

    161. Glaucoma, Unilateral

    162. Glaucoma, Uveitic

    163. Ocular Hypertension

    164. Ocular Hypotony

    165. Posner-Schlossman Syndrome

    166. Scleral Expansion Procedure in Ocular Hypertension & Primary Open-angle Glaucoma
      Iris and Ciliary Body

    167. Aniridia

    168. Iris Prolapse

    169. Juvenile Xanthogranuloma

    170. Leiomyoma, Iris

    171. Melanoma, Ciliary Body

    172. Melanoma, Iris

    173. Uveitis, Anterior, Childhood

    174. Uveitis, Anterior, Granulomatous

    175. Uveitis, Anterior, Nongranulomatous

    176. Uveitis, Classification

    177. Uveitis, Evaluation and Treatment

    178. Uveitis, Fuchs Heterochromic

    179. Uveitis, Intermediate

    180. Uveitis, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
      Lacrimal System

    181. Alacrima

    182. Dacryoadenitis

    183. Dacryocystitis

    184. Dry Eye Syndrome

    185. Laceration, Canalicular

    186. Lacrimal Gland Tumors

    187. Nasolacrimal Duct, Congenital Anomalies

    188. Nasolacrimal Duct, Obstruction

    189. Cataract, Congenital

    190. Cataract, Senile

    191. Cataract, Traumatic

    192. Ectopia Lentis

    193. Intraocular Lens Dislocation

    194. Phacoanaphylaxis

    195. Posterior Polar Cataract

    196. Apraxia of Lid Opening

    197. Basal Cell Carcinoma, Eyelid

    198. Blepharitis, Adult

    199. Blepharochalasis Syndrome

    200. Blepharospasm, Benign Essential

    201. Chalazion

    202. Dermatochalasis

    203. Distichiasis

    204. Ectropion

    205. Entropion

    206. Eyelid Coloboma

    207. Eyelid Myokymia

    208. Floppy Eyelid Syndrome

    209. Hansen Disease

    210. Hordeolum

    211. Laceration, Eyelid

    212. Laser Tissue Resurfacing

    213. Marcus Gunn Jaw-winking Syndrome

    214. Papilloma, Eyelid

    215. Pigmented Lesions of the Eyelid

    216. Ptosis, Adult

    217. Ptosis, Congenital

    218. Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma

    219. Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Eyelid

    220. Trichiasis

    221. Xanthelasma
      Metabolic Disorders

    222. Gout

    223. Hyperlipoproteinemia

    224. Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome
      Neurologic Disorders

    225. Amblyopia

    226. Bell Palsy

    227. Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia

    228. Diplopia

    229. Headache, Children

    230. Headache, Migraine

    231. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    232. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    233. Meningioma, Sphenoid Wing

    234. Multiple Sclerosis

    235. Neuro-ophthalmic Examination

    236. Neuro-ophthalmic History

    237. Transient Loss of Vision

    238. Trigeminal Neuralgia
      Ophthalmology for the General Practitioner

    239. Burns, Chemical

    240. Myasthenia Gravis

    241. Ocular Manifestations of Albinism

    242. Red Eye Evaluation

    243. Sudden Visual Loss
      Optic Nerve

    244. Meningioma, Optic Nerve Sheath

    245. Optic Atrophy

    246. Optic Neuritis, Adult

    247. Optic Neuritis, Childhood

    248. Optic Neuropathy, Anterior Ischemic

    249. Optic Neuropathy, Compressive

    250. Papilledema

    251. Pseudopapilledema

    252. Toxic/Nutritional Optic Neuropathy

    253. Cellulitis, Orbital

    254. Cellulitis, Preseptal

    255. Dermoid, Orbital

    256. Enophthalmos

    257. Exophthalmos

    258. Fistula, Carotid Cavernous

    259. Hemangioma, Capillary

    260. Hemangioma, Cavernous

    261. Ocular Lymphoma

    262. Orbital Fracture, Apex

    263. Orbital Fracture, Floor

    264. Orbital Fracture, Medial Wall

    265. Orbital Fracture, Zygomatic

    266. Thyroid Ophthalmopathy

    267. Tumors, Orbital

    268. Ataxia-telangiectasia

    269. Neurofibromatosis-1

    270. Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    271. von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    272. Wyburn-Mason Syndrome

    273. Presbyopia - Cause and Treatment

    274. Surgical Reversal of Presbyopia - Workup, Preoperative, & Postoperative Care

    275. Anisocoria

    276. Horner Syndrome

    277. Pupillary Block, Aphakic

    278. Pupillary Block, Pseudophakic
      Refractive Disorders

    279. Astigmatism, Astigmatic Keratotomy

    280. Astigmatism, LASIK

    281. Astigmatism, PRK

    282. Hyperopia and Presbyopia, Conductive Keratoplasty

    283. Hyperopia, LASIK

    284. Hyperopia, Phakic IOL

    285. LASEK

    286. LASIK, Future Advances

    287. Myopia, Clear Lens Extraction

    288. Myopia, Intracorneal Rings

    289. Myopia, LASIK

    290. Myopia, Phakic IOL

    291. Myopia, PRK

    292. Myopia, Radial Keratotomy

    293. Specialty Contact Lenses

    294. Acute Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy

    295. Acute Retinal Necrosis

    296. ARMD, Exudative

    297. ARMD, Nonexudative

    298. Best Disease

    299. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion

    300. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    301. Cancer Associated and Related Autoimmune Retinopathies

    302. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    303. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    304. Chorioretinopathy, Central Serous

    305. Eales Disease

    306. Epimacular Membrane

    307. Lattice Degeneration

    308. Macroaneurysm

    309. Macular Edema, Diabetic

    310. Macular Edema, Pseudophakic (Irvine-Gass)

    311. Macular Hole

    312. Neovascular Membranes, Subretinal

    313. Neuroretinitis, Diffuse Unilateral Subacute

    314. Nonpseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema

    315. Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome

    316. Retinal Detachment, Exudative

    317. Retinal Detachment, Postoperative

    318. Retinal Detachment, Proliferative

    319. Retinal Detachment, Rhegmatogenous

    320. Retinal Detachment, Tractional

    321. Retinitis Pigmentosa

    322. Retinitis, CMV

    323. Retinoblastoma

    324. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    325. Retinopathy, Birdshot

    326. Retinopathy, Diabetic, Background

    327. Retinopathy, Diabetic, Proliferative

    328. Retinopathy, Hemoglobinopathies

    329. Retinopathy, Purtscher

    330. Retinopathy, Valsalva

    331. Retinoschisis, Juvenile

    332. Retinoschisis, Senile

    333. Terson Syndrome

    334. White Dot Syndromes

    335. Episcleritis

    336. Scleritis
      Unclassified Disorders

    337. Behcet Disease

    338. Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity

    339. Computer Vision Syndrome

    340. Low Vision Therapy

    341. Pregnancy, Special Considerations

    342. Sarcoidosis

    343. Spider Bites

    344. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

    345. Foreign Body, Intraocular

    346. Hemorrhage, Vitreous

    347. Vitreous Wick Syndrome
      Eye injuries - chemical burns

    348. Eye injuries - chemical burns

    349. Traumatic eye injuries

    350. Closed globe contusion (bruising)

    351. Open globe injuriestoggle

    352. Orbital floor fracture (Blowout fracture)

    353. Ocular chemical burns

    354. Scratched Eye (Corneal Abrasion) Penetrating Or Foreign Objects In The Eye Caustic Foreign Substance In The Eye (Chemical Burn) Eye Swelling Subconjunctival Hemorrhages (Eye Bleeding) Traumatic Iritis Hyphemas And Orbital Blowout Fractures A blow to the eye: Ocular and orbital trauma
      Blindness: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors & More

    355. Blindness: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors & More
      Eye Ointments / Eyesight / Sabotage

    356. Sabotage
    Last Updated: April 8, 2021