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Water (Hydraulic Wing/PHE)
State department of water.
Public drinking water supply in the state:
What should the head of the state know about the drinking water supply in the state?
Access to clean water supply: Issues for people in various states around the world
Drinking water supply resources in the state.
Drinking water chemistry.
Equipment required to provide a drinking water supply to establishments.
Purification methods for the public drinking water supply in the state.
Human resources required for the drinking water supply resources.
Human Water Requirement Calculator
Issues relevant to the drinking water supply in the state.
Maintenance Exercise
States around the world with drinking water issues.
Statistics relevant to the water supply in various states around the world.
Types of Pipe Used for Water
Uses of Water
Water Pressure

Access to clean water supply: Issues for people in various states around the world
What states around the world have been identified as having inadequate clean water supplies for people?

North American states

California
Iowa
Michigan
Central America (As of March 22, 2016, a third of the Central American states are without access to safe water or proper toilets).
Cuba

Asian states

Andhra Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Chhattisgarh
Kashmir
Karnataka
Madhya Pradesh
Maharsashtra
Orissa
Rajashthan
West Bengal
Tamil Nadu
Pondicherry
Sindh
Germany
Liaoning
Heba
Shanx
Shandong
Jiangsu
Henan
Ningxia
Gansu

African states.

Ethiopia
South Africa
Sudan
Tanzania
Tunisia

Australian states

Southwestern Australia (water shortages will continue to worsen)

Latin American states

Venezuela

The directors or chief engineers, along with their secretaries and subordinates, in these various states need to answer the following questions:

What is the difference among an assignment, task, and project?
What is the difference between project management and case management?
Can you elaborate on any state around the world that needs further water supply schemes?
How many people in the state do not have access to clean water?
What is the name of the area in the state where people do not have access to clean water?
What is the population of the area in the state that needs a water supply scheme?
Do all people have access to clean water in the state?
What areas in the state need improvement in providing people with access to clean water?


Why is there need to elaborate on these issues?
A March 22, 2016, report revealed that approximately 315,000 children die from diarrheal diseases each year, with 140,000 of these deaths happening in South Asian states.

How can this be prevented?
People should have access to clean water.
Proper management of water resources is required.
Proper planning of water supply projects is required.
Projects must use adequate sources.
Pipelines must reach habitations.

Uses of Water
What are the different uses of water?
Domestic uses of water Drinking water
Cooking
Bathing
Washing
Agricultural Purposes Farming, gardening, fisheries
Workshops
Factories’ Purposes Manufacturing
Recreation Swimming
Rafting
Boating
Hydropower Generation

Drinking water supply resources in the state.
Q: What resources, products, and services are required for uninterrupted safe tap water supply?
1. Original sources like river water, lake water, or sea water are identified.
2. State planning and development is taken into consideration.
3. A water supply scheme is designed.
4. Vehicles for excavation and for other services.
5. Materials for construction of filtration plant and equipment to establish filtration plant.
6. Various purification methods like bleaching powder and chlorination.
7. Laboratory equipment to test water for safe human consumption.
8. Water tanks, pipes, and plumbing supplies are required.

Q: Can any city or municipality or service manufacture or provide all products and services required to establish uninterrupted safe tap water supply even if river or lake is located in a city?
A: No, they cannot. For all practical purposes, workers get products and service involved in this work from other areas of the state. In some regions, city municipality workers do operations and distribution of water. For all practical purposes, they are state workers.

Q: Do products and services for water filtration, water tanks, vehicles, pipes, plumbing, maintenance, electricity, clothes, building materials, or food items for workers get produced from within the city area?
A: No, they don't.

Q: What workers, services, and vendors are required for tap water supply?
A: Mechanical engineers, plumbers, and fitters; water tank, pipe, and plumbing product manufacturers; vehicle manufacturers and operators; bleaching powder manufacturers' filtration plant equipment and material manufacturers; and guides for workers.

Are there any other workers that need to be included?
What are the sources of the drinking water supply in the state?
What are the issues relevant to the water supply in the state at this point?
Why were these issues not fixed up to this point?
What are the locations of the drinking water purification plants in the state?
What needs to be done to fix these issues at this point?
How soon do these issues need to be fixed?

Issues relevant to the drinking water supply in the state:
On January 19, 2016, many residents of Michigan asked for the resignation of their governor.
Water issues in the state were one of the reasons mentioned.

What has happened since the residents asked for the resignation on January 19, 2016 of the governor of Michigan?

States around the world have drinking water issues.
What are the states worldwide with drinking water issues in 2016?
Here are further guidelines.

Human resources required for the drinking water supply resources.
For whom are these training programs meant in the state or outside the state around the world?
Drinking Water Treatment & Distribution System Operators
Hydraulic Engineer
Plumber
Mechanical engineers
Chemical engineers
Plumbers/Pipe Layers
Administrative Positions
Chief Engineer
Aditional Secretary
Assistant Director (Plg)
Commissioner Secretary
Dy. Secretary ( HRM Cell)
FA/CAO
Joint Director (Plg)
Under Secretary (G)
Under Secretary (NG)

Drinking Water Treatment & Distribution System Operators
Public Water System Self-Assessment

Has your system had a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requirements in the last year?
Yes____ No____ Not Sure____

Is the person in charge clearly defined?
Yes____ No____ Not Sure____

Are your water system documents and records stored in an organized manner?
Yes____ No____ Not Sure____

What is a Water Treatment Plant Operator?
The Water Plant Operator controls and maintains treatment plant equipment to clarify and disinfect water for human consumption. Performs laboratory tests for operational strategy and adjusts chemical feed rate settings to ensure compliance with ______ Primary/Secondary Drinking Water Standards.

What does a Water Treatment Plant Operator do?
Operates and controls electric motors, pumps, and valves to regulate flow of water source into treatment plant and monitors all operational gauges to ensure proper plant operation.
Tests water samples to determine pH, iron, manganese, free chlorine, and turbidity, using pH meter, colorimeter, and turbidimeter.
Records data, such as water flow meters, chlorine feed rate settings, turbidity, and other lab tests.
Injects specified amounts of chemicals, such as chlorine and potassium permanganate into water and makes necessary feed rate adjustments as water quality changes.
Starts agitators to mix potassium permanganate and replenishes solution barrels when necessary.
Pumps clarified and disinfected water into water storage tanks and distribution mains.
Monitors panel board and adjusts controls to regulate flow rates and water storage tank levels.
Backwashes filters when head loss is 6 – 10 psi differential or at a minimum every 96-hours.
Repairs and lubricates machines and equipment using hand and power tools.
Operates portable water-purification plant to supply drinking water during emergency contingencies.
Performs related work as assigned.

What is the workplace of a Water Treatment Plant Operator like?
Here are further guidelines.
Drinking water Emergencies
Food and Waterborne disease

Hydraulic engineering
Bachelor's Degree in Hydraulic Engineering
Master's Degree in Hydraulic Engineering
Ph.D. in Hydraulics Engineering
Mechanical engineers
Chemical engineers
Plumber and fitter training
Pipes
Tube well water

Q: Can a tube well or any well be utilized for a regular pure tap water supply from ground water everyday?
A: Experience has proven that a tube well can supplement other water resources, but it is not sufficient for a regular tap water supply.
Tube well water can be utilized for occasional drinking water, bathing, and irrigation.
People will face hardship if they try to utilize tube well water for everyday.

Public Drinking Water Systems
Statistics relevant to the water supply in various states around the world.
How many total residents of the state are there up to today?
How many residents of the state have tap water supply within their building or house?
How many residents of the state do not have tap water supply within the building or house?
What is the location of those who do not have tap water supply within the building or house?
Was any water-related illness reported from any location in the state from past 10 years?
What are the dimensions of the state?
Does the state have population more than 10 million?
What are the most common reported complaints of tap water in the last 10 years in the state?
What is the location of these complaints?
What are recommendations to improve tap water supply in the state?
What are the locations of water filtration and purification plants in the state?
How many workers have duty at these locations?
What are the essential daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly work activities at the plant?
What are the locations of tap water pipe manufacturing plants in the state?
How many workers have duty at these locations?
What are the essential daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly work activities at the plant?
What materials are utilized for tap water pipe manufacturing in the state?

Water Filtration Plant
Drinking water chemistry.
Chemical Dosing Charts

Dosage Required to Chemically Treat 10,000 Gallons of Water

To Add: Fill a clean bucket with water. Carefully add soda ash. For best results, dilute soda ash as much as possible with water. Stir until dissolved with a clean rod. Pour solution down sides of pool. Close the pool for at least 15 minutes before allowing swimmers to re-enter.

Warning: Do not add more than 1 pound of soda ash per 10,000 gallons of water at a time as it may cause the pool to cloud ("milky" consistency). Also, if your alkalinity is over 120 ppm, the addition of soda ash may also cause your water to cloud.

To Increase pH

Note: The information below assumes a total alkalinity between 60-120 ppm. If your total alkalinity is outside of the 60-120 ppm range, "fix" your T.A. first.

Amount of Soda Ash needed to raise pH to 7.4

Actual pH 10,000 gallons 25,000 gallons 50,000 gallons
6.6 1 1/2 lbs 3 3/4 lbs 7 1/2 lbs
6.8 1 1/4 lbs 3 lbs 6 lbs
7.0 1 lbs 2 1/4 lbs 4 3/4 lbs
7.2 3/4 lb 2 lbs 3 1/4 lbs
To Lower pH
Amount of Muriatic Acid needed to lower pH to 7.6
Actual pH 10,000 gallons 25,000 gallons 50,000 gallons
8.4 1/4 gallon 3/4 gallon 1 1/2 gallon
8.2 3 1/2 cups 1/2 gallon 1 gallon
8.0 2 1/2 cups 1 1/2 quarts 3 quarts
7.8 1 1/3 cups 3 1/4 cups 1 1/2 quarts
To Add: Wear protective clothing including acid-resistant apron, chemical resistant gloves, approved breathing apparatus and eye protection. Fill a clean bucket with water. Add Muriatic Acid to water. Carefully pour down side of pool distributing solution over as large an area as possible. Close the pool for at least 30 minutes before allowing swimmers to re-enter.

Warning: Never mix acid with any other chemicals. If splashed in eye, immediately irrigate with water for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water - Call 911. If splashed on skin, wash with large amounts of water for at least 30 seconds.

1 quart = 32 ounces
1 cup = 8 ounces
Parameters

Parameter - Chemical

Required Dosage

 

1 ppm            10 ppm

Free Chlorine

   

Calcium Hypochlorite (67%)

2 oz

1.3 lbs

Sodium Hypochlorite (12%)

10 fl oz

3.3 qts

Chlorine Gas

1.3 oz

13 oz

Neutralize Chlorine

   

Sodium Thiosulfate

 

1.6 lbs

Increase Total Alkalinity

   

Sodium Bicarbonate

 

1.4 lbs

Increase Calcium Hardness

   

Calcium Chloride 77%

 

1.2 lbs

Calcium Chloride 100%

 

0.9 lbs

Increase Stabilizer

   

Cyanuric Acid

 

13 oz

 

1 lb. = 16 ounces
1 gallon = 128 fluid ounces

Formula

Chemical to Add

 

=

Amount of Chemical

(given on table)

 

x

Amount of Desired Change

10 ppm

 

x

Pool Gallons

10,000

gallons

Example:
Raise alkalinity from 50 ppm to 100 ppm of alkalinity on 150,000 gallon pool (in pounds).

Chemical Added

=

1.4 lbs

x

(100 ppm - 50 ppm)

10 ppm

x

150,000 gallons

10,000 gallons

Chemical Added

=

1.4 lbs

x

50 ppm

10 ppm

x

150,000 gallons

10,000 gallons

=

105 lbs

To Increase pH

Note: The information below assumes a total alkalinity between 60-120 ppm. If your total alkalinity is outside of the 60-120 ppm range, "fix" your T.A. first.

Amount of Soda Ash needed to raise pH to 7.4

Actual pH

10,000 gallons

25,000 gallons

50,000 gallons

6.6

1 1/2 lbs

3 3/4 lbs

7 1/2 lbs

6.8

1 1/4 lbs

3 lbs

6 lbs

7.0

1 lbs

2 1/4 lbs

4 3/4 lbs

7.2

3/4 lb

2 lbs

3 1/4 lbs

 

To Add: Fill a clean bucket with water. Carefully add soda ash. For best results, dilute soda ash as much as possible with water. Stir until dissolved with a clean rod. Pour solution down sides of pool. Close the pool for at least 15 minutes before allowing swimmers to re-enter.

Warning: Do not add more than 1 pound of soda ash per 10,000 gallons of water at a time as it may cause the pool to cloud ("milky" consistency). Also, if your alkalinity is over 120 ppm, the addition of soda ash may also cause your water to cloud.

To Lower pH

Amount of Muriatic Acid needed to lower pH to 7.6

Actual pH

10,000 gallons

25,000 gallons

50,000 gallons

8.4

1/4 gallon

3/4 gallon

1 1/2 gallon

8.2

3 1/2 cups

1/2 gallon

1 gallon

8.0

2 1/2 cups

1 1/2 quarts

3 quarts

7.8

1 1/3 cups

3 1/4 cups

1 1/2 quarts

 

To Add: Wear protective clothing including acid-resistant apron, chemical resistant gloves, approved breathing apparatus and eye protection. Fill a clean bucket with water. Add Muriatic Acid to water. Carefully pour down side of pool distributing solution over as large an area as possible. Close the pool for at least 30 minutes before allowing swimmers to re-enter.

Warning: Never mix acid with any other chemicals. If splashed in eye, immediately irrigate with water for at least 15 minutes with large amounts of water - Call 911. If splashed on skin, wash with large amounts of water for at least 30 seconds.

1 quart = 32 ounces
1 cup = 8 ounces

Microbial aspects

Securing the microbial safety of drinking-water supplies is based on the use of multiple barriers, from catchment to consumer, to prevent the contamination of drinking-water or to reduce contamination to levels not injurious to health. Safety is increased if multiple barriers are in place, including protection of water resources, proper selection and operation of a series of treatment steps and management of distribution systems (piped or otherwise) to maintain and protect treated water quality.

Disinfection

Disinfection is of unquestionable importance in the supply of safe drinking-water. The destruction of microbial pathogens is essential and very commonly involves the use of reactive chemical agents such as chlorine.

Chemical aspects

The health concerns associated with chemical constituents of drinking-water differ from those associated with microbial contamination and arise primarily from the ability of chemical constituents to cause adverse health effects after prolonged periods of exposure.There are few chemical constituents of water that can lead to health problems resulting from a single exposure, except through massive accidental contamination of a drinking-water supply.Moreover,experience shows that in many,but not all, such incidents, the water becomes undrinkable owing to unacceptable taste, odour and appearance.

Exposure to high levels of ?uoride, which occurs naturally, can lead to mottling of teeth and, in severe cases, crippling skeletal ?uorosis. Similarly, arsenic may occur naturally, and excess exposure to arsenic in drinking-water may result in a signi?cant risk of cancer and skin lesions. Other naturally occurring chemicals, including uranium and selenium, may also give rise to health concern when they are present in excess. The presence of nitrate and nitrite in water has been associated with methaemoglobinaemia, especially in bottle-fed infants. Nitrate may arise from the excessive application of fertilizers or from leaching of wastewater or other organic wastes into surface water and groundwater. Particularly in areas with aggressive or acidic waters, the use of lead pipes and ?ttings or solder can result in elevated lead levels in drinking-water,which cause adverse neurological effects. There are few chemicals for which the contribution from drinking-water to overall intake is an important factor in preventing disease. One example is the effect of ?uoride in drinking-water in increasing prevention against dental caries.The Guidelines do not attempt to de?ne minimum desirable concentrations for chemicals in drinking-water. Guideline values are derived for many chemical constituents of drinking-water. A guideline value normally represents the concentration of a constituent that does not result in any signi?cant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption. A number of provisional guideline values have been established based on the practical level of treatment achievability or analytical achievability. In these cases, the guideline value is higher than the calculated health-based value.

Radiological aspects

The health risk associated with the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking-water should also be taken into consideration, although the contribution of drinking-water to total exposure to radionuclides is very small under normal circumstances.

Acceptability aspects

Water should be free of tastes and odours that would be objectionable to the majority of consumers.

Roles and responsibilities in drinking-water safety management

Preventive management is the preferred approach to drinking-water safety and should take account of the characteristics of the drinking-water supply from catchment and source to its use by consumers.

Surveillance and quality control

In order to protect public health, a dual-role approach, differentiating the roles and responsibilities of service providers from those of an authority responsible for independent oversight protective of public health (“drinking-water supply surveillance”), has proven to be effective.

Operational parameter

pH
Turbidity (or particle count)
Dissolved oxygen
Stream/river ?ow
Rainfall
Color
Conductivity (total dissolved solids,or TDS)
Organic carbon
Algae,algal toxins and metabolites
Chemical dosage
Flow rate
Net charge
Streaming current value
Headloss
Ct
Disinfectant residual
Oxidation–reduction potential (ORP)
DBPs
Hydraulic pressure
19
Water Chemistry
Water Filtration Plant
Water Conservation
Water Saving Products
Preventive Health Measures

Water Pressure
What are the normal flow rates from a water service?
Maintenance Exercise
Bottled water-Project Report

Drinking water supply resources in the state.
Water source
What is a source water assessment?
Where does drinking water come from?
What are the threats to source water?
How much assessment work has been done?
Is more assessment work needed?
Does my state have a source water assessment program?
Is source water protection required?
What is a Public Water System?
What are the different types of public water systems?
Where do public water systems get the drinking water?
What is a source water assessment area for surface water?
What is a source water assessment area for ground water?
What does a Potential Contaminant Source Inventory consist of?
Here are important guidelines.
Oceans, Seas, & Bays
Rivers
Lakes
    Fresh
    Saline
Ground water
    Fresh
    Saline
How many total districts/counties are there?
How many Water Filtration Plant/Water Treatment Plants are there?
Why we need to build another Water Filtration Plant/Water Treatment Plants?
What's the best way to build another Water Filtration Plant/Water Treatment Plants?
(A-1) = Name of the Water Filtration Plant/Water Treatment Plant.
What are the demographics of the PHE's/city's (A-1) service area?
What are the water sources for the (A-1) Water Treatment Plant?
How are Water Systems Monitored?
How are Treatment Techniques used to monitor drinking water?
What was the capacity of the old (A-1) Water Treatment Plant?
What is the capacity of the new (A-1) Water Treatment Plant?
Is the project on budget?
Impacts on Community
Large-scale construction projects will always have activities that will impact the surrounding neighborhood. (For Example: Road detour etc.)
What specific water purification methods are there?
How do specific water purification methods work?

Maintenance Exercise
A water pipe bursts in the middle of the road.
Who is responsible for the repair and the maintenance?
Who should be contacted?
What is their contact information?
What are the procedures involved?
Water Quality Control

Public Health Engineering/water works/etc, through technical monitoring, surveillance, and enforcement action, is responsible for assuring that quality of drinking water, as distributed by public supply or obtained commercially as bottled water, is in full compliance with Federal, State, and local standards. This task is accomplished by surveillance sampling and performance of water treatment facility inspections.
The PHE also assures that the quality of waters used for recreational purposes, at pools and beaches, are constructed and operated in compliance which protect the public health and safety.

Technical Assistance
Plumbing
Swimming Pool Reviews
Public Facility Reviews
Institutional Reviews
Grants Evaluations
Highway Right of Way Approvals
Coastal Management and Waterway Approvals
Bottled water-Project Report

What is bottled water?
What are the different types of bottled water?
Is bottled water regulated differently from tap water?
How long can I store bottled water?
What is the difference between bottled water and tap water?

Human Water Requirement Calculator
Without perspiration, the normal daily turnover of water in adults is about 4% of body weight, which is 2.8 lit for a 70kg person.

Body Weight Pounds 165.347 Kilograms 75
Exercise Time 0, 20, 40, 60 Number Of Minutes Of Daily Exercise

Environmental Conditions
    Extreme Heat - Arid Or Desert Conditions
    Normally Warm Environment
    Normally Cool Environment
    Extreme Cold - At, Near or Below Freezing (Surrounding Climate)
Suggested Daily Consumption
2550 (Mililiters Of Water)

Approximate Glasses Of Water
10.778
Age, Gender & Additional InformationAdequate Intake for Total Water
0–6 months infants0.7 L/day of water, assumed to be from human milk.
7–12 months infants0.8 L/day of total water, assumed to be from human milk, complementary foods and beverages. This includes approximately 0.6 L (˜ 3 cups) as total fluid, including formula or human milk, juices, and drinking water.
1–3 years children1.3 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 0.9 L (˜ 4 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
4–8 years children1.7 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 1.2 L (˜ 5 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
9–13 years boys2.4 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 1.8 L (˜ 8 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
14–18 years boys3.3 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 2.6 L (˜ 11 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
9–13 years girls2.1 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 1.6 L (˜ 7 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
14–18 years girls2.3 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 1.8 L (˜ 8 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
>18 years men3.7 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 3.0 L (˜ 13 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
>18 years women2.7 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 2.2 L (˜ 9 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
Pregnant women3.0 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 2.3 L (˜ 10 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
Lactating women3.8 L/day of total water. This includes approximately 3.1 L (˜ 13 cups) as total beverages, including drinking water.
How much water should you drink every day?

Nobody knows for sure and different people have different views. Experts say that you should drink at least eight glasses of water every day; a glass of water is about 8 ounces or about .236 milliliters.

How much water should you drink each day?

People more than 18 years of age should drink at least 1.5 to 2 liters of water daily.

Water consumption for children

How much drinking water do children need every 24 hours?
How much formula?

For the first 6 months your baby should be taking 150-200 mls of formula per 1 kg (or 70-90 mls per lb). For example, a baby weighing 5 kg should take 750-1000 mls in 24 hours (150/200 mls multiplied by 5). It is normal for some babies to take slightly more than this, some a little less.

Commonly, babies have 6-7 feeds every 24 hours - researchers/pediatrician recommend you feed your baby whenever she/he is hungry.

About 20 minutes is the right length of time for a feed but some babies are slow feeders and others fast. A slow feed could last up to one hour and a fast feed may be finished in 10 minutes. The flow of milk from the teat and wind are two factors that may affect your baby's feeding.

Formula will provide a healthy baby with all the fluid needed in the first 6 months of life. It's only when your baby is unwell or very thirsty e.g. during hot weather, that additional drinks are needed. For a thirsty baby, cooled, boiled tap water is the best drink to offer. An unwell baby with diarrhoea needs to be given an oral reyhdration solution.

What nutrients are in infant formulas?

Baby formulas contain energy-providing nutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) as well as water (an essential nutrient) and appropriate vitamins and minerals. The energy nutrients provide the calories necessary to maintain bodily functions, support activity, and promote growth. They also support desirable immune functions as an outcome of overall nutrition. Protein provides the building blocks necessary to form and repair tissue. Vitamins and minerals are essential in the metabolism of energy nutrients. Minerals play an important part in bone structure, regulate certain body functions and, together with water, help maintain the body's water balance.

Standard iron-fortified baby formulas are nutritionally complete foods for normal infants. When a physician recommends a formula not fortified with iron, another source of iron should also be recommended. A physician may recommend fluoride supplementation to infants at least 6 months of age only if the water supply is severely depleted of fluoride.
Here are further guidelines.

How can you tell if children are dehydrated?

If your child has fever, diarrhea, or vomiting, or is sweating a lot on a hot day or during intense physical activity, watch for signs of dehydration, which can include:

* Irritability (more crying, fussiness with inconsolability)

* No tears when the child cries

* Dry or sticky mucous membranes (the lining of the mouth or tongue)

* Lethargy (less than normal activity)

* Lack of urine or wet diapers for 6 to 8 hours in an infant (or only a very small amount of dark yellow urine)

* Lack of urine for 12 hours in an older child (or only a very small amount of dark yellow urine)

* Fatigue or dizziness in an older child

* Sunken eyes

* Sunken soft spot on the front of the head in babies (called the fontanel)

Here are further guidelines.
How much water does the average person use at home/home office per day?
BathA full tub is about 36 gallons.
Shower 2 gallons per minute. Old shower heads use as much as 5 gallons per minute.
Teeth brushing <1 gallon, especially if water is turned off while brushing. Newer bath faucets use about 1 gallon per minute, whereas older models use over 2 gallons.
Hands/face washing 1 gallon
Face/leg shaving 1 gallon
Dishwasher 4 to 10 gallons/load, depending of efficiency of dishwasher
Dishwashing by hand: 20 gallons. Newer kitchen faucets use about 2.2 gallons per minutes, whereas older faucets use more.
Clothes washer 25 gallons/load for newer washers. Older models use about 40 gallons per load.
Toilet flush 3 gallons. Most all new toilets use 1.6 gallons per flush, but many older toilets used about 4 gallons.
Glasses of water drunk 8 oz. per glass (did you remember to drink your 8 glasses of water today?)
Outdoor watering 5 to 10 gallons per minute
Irrigation water requirements

Plumber
Annotation of definition
Plumber Services
Plumbing Tools
Annotation of definition

What is a Plumber?
According to one dictionary, a plumber is someone that fits and repairs water pipes.

When you find out what a plumber does, it is much more complex than that. They also install and repair water systems as well as waste disposal and drainage for a home. Plumbers also install plumbing fixtures, sinks, bathtubs and toilets. You may also call in a plumber to install that new dishwasher. When all of a sudden you are taking a cold shower, it may be time to call in a plumber to install a new water heater. When that toilet won’t unclog, find a plumber.

Plumber Services

Boiler and hot water heater service and maintenance
Drain Cleaning
Water Heater Service
Emergency Plumbing
Hydrojetting
Tankless Water Heater Installation
Toilet Repair
Frozen Pipe Repair & Thawing
Sink Repair
Sump pump installations
Backflow Installation & Service
Repiping
Water releases
Well systems
Faucets, sinks & toilets
Bath & kitchen remodeling
Dishwasher installation and washer/dryer hook-ups
Garbage disposals
Water softeners

We call water "hard" if it contains a lot of calcium, magnesium or other minerals. Groundwater acquires these metals by dissolving them from surrounding soil and rock. _______ measures water hardness in terms of grains per gallon (GPG) or milligrams per liter (mg/L). A grain is defined as 64.8 milligrams of calcium carbonate. If your water tests at 1 GPG (17.1 mg/L) or less, then you have soft water. Water around 1-3.5 GPG (17.1-60 mg/L) occupies a gray zone between soft and slightly hard water and 3.5-7 GPG (60-120 mg/L) is moderately hard. Hard water is around 7-10.5 GPG (120 - 180 mg/L), and very hard water is above that.

Plumbing Tools





Pliers (tongue and groove)
Basin Wrench
Compression Sleeve Puller
Pipe Wrench
Adjustable wrench
Screw Drivers
Allen Wrench Set
Hacksaw
Plumber's Putty

Plumbers need many tools to get the plumbing work done right. A plumber that shows up at your door will usually have a truck stocked with tools and equipment for anything they might run into. A successful plumber knows that having the right tools can speed up the time it takes to finish a job. Most homeowners would not imagine the amount of money a plumber invests in tools and equipment. Using saws, pipe bending machines, pipe cutters and video camera inspection are just a few of the tools a plumber may need on a service call. We take for granted when everything is working right, but when the basement is flooded and you need a sump pump installed, what are you going to do? Find a plumber. You may have a slab leak or a hidden water leak behind a wall. A good plumber is like any other trade. Once you find a plumber you trust, you have the peace of mind knowing that your homes plumbing is in good hands in the case of an emergency. Do you need to findaplumber?

RESPONSIBILITIES

(Major responsibilities and target accomplishments expected of the position including the typical problems encountered in carrying out the responsibilities.)

1. Install, repair and maintain plumbing systems and components Main Activities
Review building plans and specifications to determine the layout for plumbing and related materials
Identify required tools and special equipment
Select the type and size of pipe required
Locate and mark positions for connections and fixtures
Install supports and hangers for pipe, fixtures and equipment
Assemble and install valves and fittings
Install, repair and maintain water treatment equipment, piping and controls
Install, repair and maintain underground storm sanitary and water piping systems
Install, repair and maintain sinks, tubs and toilets
Install, repair and maintain water heaters and conditioners
Install, repair and maintain plumbing fixtures, appliances and trim
Test pipe systems and fixtures for leaks

2. Maintain all building codes, installation requirements and relevant legislation
Main Activities
Perform scheduled maintenance service on plumbing systems and fixtures
Apply all codes to installations, repairs and maintenance
Ensure all requirements as specified by the manufacturer of systems and fixtures are met
Ensure all installations, repairs and maintenance are properly sized, aligned, supported and graded
Ensure all installations, repairs and maintenance meet the requirements of the appropriate codes
Ensure all installations, repairs and maintenance meet environmental protection requirements

3. Administer and schedule work
Main Activities
Prepare orders of supplies
Keep daily reports
Schedule work in cooperation with other trades and suppliers

4. Perform other related duties as required

Some needed skills, interests, and values

Reading drawings, and specifications to determine layout of water supply, waste, and venting systems Detecting faults in plumbing appliances and systems, and correctly _______ their causes
Installing, repairing and maintaining ________ plumbing fixtures and systems
Locating and marking positions for pipe connections, passage holes, and fixtures in walls and floors Measuring, cutting, bending, and threading pipes using hand and power tools or machines
Joining pipes and fittings together using soldering techniques, compression fittings, threaded fittings, and push-on fittings.
Testing pipes for leaks using air and water pressure gauges
Awareness of legal regulations and safety issues
Ensuring safety standards and build regulations are met.
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.
Here are further guidelines.


Equipment required to provide a drinking water supply to establishments.
Water supply in tall buildings: roof tanks vs. pressurised systems
Types of Pipe Used for Water
Plumbing Supplies
Water supply in tall buildings: roof tanks vs. pressurised systems

The use of roof tanks to ensure adequate water pressure in buildings, and especially tall buildings, is very common. The alternative to roof tanks is the use of pressurised systems, where a number of booster pumps provide the necessary pressure.

Types of Pipe Used for Water
Galvanized Pipe

Galvanized pipe is a zinc coated steel or iron pipe. This galvanized coating keeps the water from eating up the pipe. Because of the amount of work that goes into cutting, threading, and installing galvanized pipe it is not used in homes very often any more. Galvanized pipe is still considered a safe transport for drinking water and is still seen in larger ________ applications for water distribution. If you have a pre 1970s house you could still have galvanized water lines in your house if it has not been re-piped.

States around the world with drinking water issues.
What are examples of various states in various continents around the world?

North American States

  1. Alabama (AL)

  2. Alaska (AK)

  3. Arizona (AZ)

  4. Arkansas (AR)

  5. Alberta (AB)

  6. British Columbia (BC)

  7. California (CA)

  8. Colorado (CO)

  9. Connecticut (CT)

  10. Delaware (DE)

  11. Florida (FL)

  12. Georgia (GA)

  13. Hawaii (HI)

  14. Idaho (ID)

  15. Illinois (IL)

  16. Indiana (IN)

  17. Iowa (IA)

  18. Kansas (KS)

  19. Kentucky (KY)

  20. Louisiana (LA)

  21. Maine (ME)

  22. Maryland (MD)

  23. Massachusetts (MA)

  24. Michigan (MI)

  25. Minnesota (MN)

  26. Mississippi (MS)

  27. Missouri (MO)

  28. Montana (MT)

  29. Manitoba (MB)

  30. Mexico (MX)

  31. Nebraska (NE)

  32. Nevada (NV)

  33. New Hampshire (NH)

  34. New Jersey (NJ)

  35. New Mexico (NM)

  36. New York (NY)

  37. North Carolina (NC)

  38. North Dakota (ND)

  39. New Brunswick (NB)

  40. Newfoundland and Labrador (NL)

  41. Northwest Territories (NT)

  42. Nova Scotia (NS)

  43. Nunavut (NU)

  44. Ohio (OH)

  45. Oklahoma (OK)

  46. Oregon (OR)

  47. Ontario (ON)

  48. Pennsylvania (PA)

  49. Prince Edward Island (PE)

  50. Quebec (QC)

  51. Rhode Island (RI)

  52. South Carolina (SC)

  53. South Dakota (SD)

  54. Saskatchewan (SK)

  55. Tennessee (TN)

  56. Texas (TX)

  57. Utah (UT)

  58. Vermont (VT)

  59. Virginia (VA)

  60. Washington (WA)

  61. West Virginia (WV)

  62. Wisconsin (WI)

  63. Wyoming (WY)

  64. Yukon (YT)
    Asian States

  65. Albania

  66. Andorra

  67. Armenia

  68. Austria

  69. Azerbaijan

  70. Arkhangelsk Oblast

  71. Anhui Province

  72. Afghanistan

  73. Assam

  74. Arunachal Pradesh

  75. Andhra Pradesh

  76. Andaman and Nicober Islands

  77. Balochistan

  78. Bahrain

  79. Bangladesh

  80. Belarus

  81. Belgium

  82. Bhutan

  83. Bihar

  84. Brunei

  85. Bosnia and Herzegovina

  86. Bulgaria

  87. Chechnya

  88. Croatia

  89. Cyprus

  90. Czech Republic

  91. Cambodia

  92. Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

  93. Chhattisgarh

  94. Daman and Diu

  95. Dadra and Nagar Haveli

  96. Dagestan

  97. Denmark

  98. England

  99. Estonia

  100. East Timor

  101. Finland

  102. Fujian Province

  103. France

  104. Gujarat

  105. Goa

  106. Georgia

  107. Germany

  108. Gibraltar

  109. Greece

  110. Gansu Province

  111. Guangdong Province

  112. Guangxi Province

  113. Guizhou

  114. Heilongjiang

  115. Hong Kong

  116. Hubei

  117. Hainan Province

  118. Henan Province

  119. Hunan Province

  120. Himachal Pradesh

  121. Hungary

  122. Inner Mongolia

  123. Indonesia

  124. Iran

  125. Iraq

  126. Iceland

  127. Ireland

  128. Italy

  129. Japan

  130. Jeddah

  131. Jiangxi Province

  132. Jordan

  133. Jiangsu

  134. Jiangxi

  135. Jilin

  136. Jharkhand

  137. Kashmir

  138. Karnataka

  139. Kerala

  140. Kazakhstan

  141. Korea - North

  142. Korea - South

  143. Kyrgyzstan

  144. Kuwait

  145. Kaliningrad Oblast

  146. Lakshadweep

  147. Latvia

  148. Liechtenstein

  149. Lithuania

  150. Luxembourg

  151. Laos

  152. Lebanon

  153. Liaoning Province

  154. Liaoning

  155. Manipur

  156. Mizoram

  157. Maharashtra

  158. Madhya Pradesh

  159. Meghalaya

  160. Malaysia

  161. Maldives

  162. Magadan Oblast

  163. Mongolia

  164. Myanmar

  165. Macedonia

  166. Malta

  167. Medina

  168. Mecca

  169. Moldova

  170. Monaco

  171. Montenegro

  172. NCT of Delhi

  173. Nagaland

  174. Netherlands

  175. Northern Ireland

  176. Norway

  177. Ningxia

  178. Nepal

  179. Oman

  180. Orissa

  181. Puducherry

  182. Punjab

  183. Peshawar

  184. Philippines

  185. Poland

  186. Portugal

  187. Palestine

  188. Qinghai Province

  189. Qinghai

  190. Qatar

  191. Rajasthan

  192. Romania

  193. Sikkim

  194. Syria

  195. Sindh

  196. Singapore

  197. Sri Lanka

  198. Scotland

  199. Serbia

  200. Slovakia

  201. Slovenia

  202. Spain

  203. Sweden

  204. Switzerland

  205. Shaanxi Province

  206. Shandong

  207. Shanxi

  208. Sichuan

  209. Taiwan

  210. Tajikistan

  211. Thailand

  212. Tibet

  213. Tripura

  214. Tamil Nadu

  215. Turkey

  216. Turkmenistan

  217. Ukraine

  218. Uzbekistan

  219. Uttarakhand

  220. United Arab Emirates

  221. Uttar Pradesh

  222. Vietnam

  223. Vatican City

  224. Wales

  225. West Bengal

  226. Xinjiang

  227. Yunnan

  228. Yamalia

  229. Yemen

  230. Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

  231. Zhejiang
    Africa

  232. Algeria

  233. Angola

  234. Burundi

  235. Benin

  236. Burkina Faso

  237. Botswana

  238. Cape Verde

  239. Côte d'Ivoire

  240. Comoros

  241. Cameroon

  242. Central African Republic

  243. Chad

  244. Canary Islands

  245. Ceuta

  246. Democratic Republic of the Congo

  247. Djibouti

  248. Egypt

  249. Eritrea

  250. Ethiopia

  251. Equatorial Guinea

  252. Gabon

  253. Gambia

  254. Ghana

  255. Guinea

  256. Guinea-Bissau

  257. Kenya

  258. Liberia

  259. Libya

  260. Lesotho

  261. Madagascar

  262. Malawi

  263. Mauritius

  264. Mayotte

  265. Mozambique

  266. Mali

  267. Mauritania

  268. Madeira

  269. Melilla

  270. Morocco

  271. Niger

  272. Nigeria

  273. Namibia

  274. Réunion

  275. Rwanda

  276. Republic of the Congo

  277. São Tomé and Príncipe

  278. Saint Helena

  279. Senegal

  280. Sierra Leone

  281. Seychelles

  282. Somalia

  283. South Africa

  284. Swaziland

  285. South Sudan

  286. Sudan

  287. Tanzania

  288. Togo

  289. Tunisia

  290. Uganda

  291. Western Sahara

  292. Zambia

  293. Zimbabwe
    Australia

  294. Northern Territory

  295. South Australia

  296. Queensland

  297. New South Wales

  298. Victoria (Australia)

  299. Western Australian

  300. Tasmania

  301. New Zealand
    Latin

  302. Acre (Asif Province)

  303. Alagoas

  304. Amapá

  305. Amazonas

  306. Bahia

  307. Buenos Aires Province

  308. Ceará

  309. Chubut Province

  310. Córdoba Province

  311. Goiás

  312. Bolivia

  313. Chile

  314. Colombia

  315. Ecuador

  316. Falkland Islands

  317. French Guiana

  318. Guyana

  319. Paraguay

  320. Peru

  321. Río Negro

  322. Santa Cruz

  323. Santa Fe Province

  324. Salta Province

  325. South Georgia

  326. Suriname

  327. Uruguay

  328. Venezuela

Riyadh: Water
Bowaib Water Project
Dams
Jubail Desalination Pipeline Project
Salboukh Water Project
Wasei' Water Project

Bowaib Water Project

The Bowaib Water Project consists of 18 wells producing 104,000 cubic yards (80,000 cubic meters) of water each day. It also has an electricity generating plant and staff-housing village. An additional tank, with a capacity of 20,000 cubic meters, is also installed.

Dams

In order to conserve rain water for human consumption and to protect and increase the reserves of underground water, five dams have been constructed in the region around Riyadh;
- Hair Dam
- Laban Dam
- Namar Dam
- Olab Dam
- Wadi Hanifa Dam

These five dams have a storage capacity of 15,700,000 cubic yards of water (12,000,000 cubic meters).

Jubail Desalination Pipeline Project

Two pipelines 290 miles long (466 km) have been built to bring water from the desalination facilities in Jubail to Riyadh. These pipelines have a total daily capacity of 210 million gallons. This project, commissioned in 1983, is typical of the innovative and ambitious manner in which the Kingdom has tackled the challenges it has faced.

Salboukh Water Project

The Salboukh Water Project combines the exploitation of water resources from wells, with a filtration plant, cooling towers, precipitation tanks and a desalination plant. The associated electricity plant has a capacity of 21 megawatts.

Wasei' Water Project

The Wasei' Water Project comprises 62 wells, with a capacity of 260,000 cubic yards (200,000 cubic meters). The Project is situated 70 miles (110 km) from Riyadh and is equipped with pumping stations, pipelines, storage tanks, a filtration plant and an electricity generating plant.

Desalinated water production by major plants in SA

PLANT LOCATION PRODUCTION

Khafji
Jubail
AlKhobar
Haqal
Ziba
Wajeh
Amlaj
Rabigh
Aziziah
Birk
Farsan
Jeddah
Madinah/Yanboua
Makkah/Taif
Asir

Reclaimed wastewater use

AREA

Dyirab
Daraiah
Amariah
Riyadh refinery
Last Updated: January 24, 2016